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upper chinook language

Family division. Chinookan consisted of three languages with multiple varieties. In 2001, there were five remaining speakers of Wasco. Miwok-Costanoan (Utian) Miwokan (Miwok) Mixtec. There were Lower and Upper Chinookan groups, only a single variety of the latter now survives: Wasco-Wishram (Wasco and Wishram were originally two separate, similar varieties). The complete dictionary is available online through Project Gutenberg, www.gutenberg.org. Classification open Upper Chinook; expand all; collapse all; Comments on subclassification. Dell Hymes 1984: 365 . Katlamat, Cathlamet) Lower Chinook (a.k.a. The Chinookan languages were a small family of languages spoken in Oregon and Washington along the Columbia River by Chinook peoples.Although the last known native speaker of any Chinookan language died in 2012, the 2009-2013 American Community Survey found 270 self-identified speakers of Upper Chinook. Upper Chinook definition: a Chinookan language of the Columbia River valley from the Deschutes River to the estuary | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples Modern usages: "That's skookum" in reference to a constructed object or a piece of work well done. In 1990, there were 69 speakers (7 monolinguals) of Wasco-Wishram; in 2001, 5 speakers of Wasco remained; the last fully fluent speaker, Gladys Thompson, died in 2012. Upper Chinook, also known as Kiksht, Columbia Chinook, and Wasco-Wishram after its last surviving dialect, is a recently extinct language of the US Pacific Northwest. They belonged to the Upper Chinook language division. Clauses are combined by juxtaposition or particles, rather than subordinating inflection. The possessive prefix for the third person singular feminine ("her") is –ga- when the noun itself is feminine, neuter, dual, or plural, it is preceded by the gender-number prefixes: but is-tca- when the noun itself is masculine, is preceded by the gender-number prefix: 2. The neuter may indicate indefiniteness. Suffixes include repetitive, causatives, an involuntary passive, completive, stative, purposive, future, usitative, successful completive and so on. Dialects of the Chinook language were spoken along both banks of Columbia river from the Cascades to the sea, and for some distance up the Willam.ette. Endangerment AES status: extinct Source: Campbell, Lyle and Lee, Nala Huiying and Okura, Eve and … Definitely this is a sound change not found within Salish. The Natítanui language, as spoken by Q’lti, and preserved in the 1894 “Chinook Texts”, gives us clues about Chinuk Wawa’s history. All are used for nouns referring to objects as well. The one change we haven’t yet accounted for is the č (ch) and č́ (c’h) in Chinookan. Family division. Stress is marked as /á/. DICTIONARY OF THE CHINOOK JARGON… Change ). The Cathlapotle language is no longer spoken today, but today the Grand Ronde tribes are working to revive the old Chinook Jargon trade language, which played an important role in their shared history. Dell Hymes 1984: 365 . Masculine prefixes also appear with nouns expressing qualities. Clatsop Plains spoke dialects of one language, called Lower Chinook. Chinookan languages consist of three languages with multiple varieties.There is some dispute over classification, and there are two ISO 639-3 codes assigned: chh (Chinook, Lower Chinook) and wac (Wasco-Wishram, Upper Chinook). Let’s look into that now.Â. That’s to say, 8 of the 11 occurrences of the ethnonym have a “hushing” realization (“ch” rather than “ts”, “sh” rather than “s”), not native to Lower Chehalis. The possessive prefix for the first person singular "my" is –gE (Wishram-g-,-k-;- x̩ Upper Chinook people lived in plank houses for part of the year. Chinook Dyk 1933 A grammar of Wishram Nichols 1992 Linguistic Diversity in Space and Time Silverstein 1976 Hierarchy of Features and Ergativity Silverstein 1978 Deixis and deducibility in a Wasco-Wishram passive of evidence (1) Lower Chinook, comprising two slightly different dialects, the Chinook proper and the Clatsop; (2) Upper Chinook which included all the rest of the tribes, though with numerous slight dialectic differences. Extracts of the films taken during the 1930 Conference on PISL conservation, showing signers from various tribes. Upper Chinookan data. Franz Boas wasn’t very accomplished at hearing the “glottalized resonant” consonants in Pacific NW languages, so we can’t tell for sure whether Q’lti was saying –ćxÌ£íĺs (-t’sxÌ£ílʔs), or instead –ćxÌ£-íls (-t’sxÌ£íls), in his Chinookan. Kiksht (Wishram / Wasco etc.) Hence, Jargon is now a creole language. ( Log Out /  Chinook Jargon. The Skilloot language is no longer spoken today, but today the Grand Ronde tribes are working to revive the old Chinook Jargon trade language, which played an important role in their shared history. The gender/number prefixes is followed by possessive pronominal prefixes of the verb. Verbs stems may be simplex or compound, the second member indicating direction, including motion out of, from open to cover especially from water to shore or inland, from cover to open, especially toward water, into, down or up. When the rivers rose in the spring, people moved out of the flood plain, towing the planks from their house behind their canoes. The pronominal prefixes are obligatory, whether free nominals occur in the clause-or not. When it follows an absolutive –dative pronoun sequence, it indicates that one indirectly affected is associated with the absolutive, perhaps as the whole in a part-whole relationship, or the owner. 1904: Riot at Nootka, and echoes of Sir James Douglas! People of the Chinook culture dominated the region from near the mouth of the Columbia River eastward to the Dalles and included such groups as the Multnomahs (Willamette west bank from Sauvies Island) and the Wasco/Wishram (at Columbia River's Celilo Falls). Upper Chinook definition is - a Chinookan language of the Clackamas, Wasco, Wishram, and neighboring peoples. They are divided into two sets, Upper and Lower, the former embracing those from the Cas- cades to Grey’s Bay on the northern bank of the river and to a … Older linguistic classifications list Chinookan as a family of its own which consists of three languages with multiple lects: Kathlamet (a.k.a. "He's skookum" can refer to a person's size, but also to their reliability or honesty even more than to their physical strength. Most of the language family became extinct as separate groups by 1900, except a few hundreds who mixed with other groups. The Chinookan Language Family Chinookan is a small family of languages spoken in Oregon and Washington along the Columbia River by Chinook peoples. Upper Chinookan data as a guide, since that’s what’s most readily available, it would appear as though Chinookans “heard” native Lower Chehalis Salish ćxÌ£-íĺs (t’sxÌ£-ílʔs) as a Diminutive form. Chinook Jargon also flourished from 1790s–1830s, then experienced a flood of English and French new vocabulary. in Jan. 2001, but in the 90-day grace period the Quinault Tribe filed an appeal stating that the Chinook Nation made mistakes when applying for federal recognition. Reflexive prefixes can serve as reciprocals and as medio-passives. The Chinookan languages were a small family of languages spoken in Oregon and Washington along the Columbia River by Chinook peoples. Upper Chinook was originally a set of half a dozen dialects, spoken in the upper Columbia River of which only the Wasco-Wishram dialect is still active. Quite a number of mentions occur there of the (Lower) Chehalis Salish neighbors of the Natítanui a.k.a. Only later did Chinook Jargon acquire significant English and French lexical items. ‘Chehalis’ is Chinookan — and therefore CW? Initial prefix serve primarily as nominalizers. ... (Upper Coquille) Miwok. (Image credit: ChinookAndLowerChehalis.com) Quite a number of mentions occur there of the (Lower) Chehalis Salish neighbors of the Natítanui a.k.a. Then declined, was recorded by linguists in the 1930s, and died out by the early 1900s. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. ASL and LSQ). Although the last known native speaker of any Chinookan language died in 2012, the 2009-2013 American Community Survey found 270 self-identified speakers of Upper Chinook.[2]. Katlamat, Cathlamet) Lower Chinook (a.k.a. It includes part of his original introduction and the full text of the English-Chinook section of his dictionary. For example, Ethnologue 15e classifies Kiksht as Lower Chinook, while others consider it instead Upper Chinook (), and others a separate language. Chippewa. If we compare the theoretical forms *ag-"she"and *itc-"he"with the remaining subjective forms of the transitive verb, we obtain at once a perfectly regular and intelligible set of forms. And definitely it is found in the Chinookan system of consonant mutations. Chinook definition, a member of a formerly numerous North American Indian people originally inhabiting the northern shore of the mouth of the Columbia River and the adjacent territory. Note 1: It is important to distinguish between Chinookan languages and “Chinook jargon”. The Joshua Project Progress Scale is an estimate of the progress of church planting among a people group, people cluster, country or language. Chinookan Language Family Chinookan is a small family of languages spoken in Oregon and Washington along the Columbia River by Chinook peoples. The dialects of villages from the upper reaches of the Columbia River estuary to The Dalles have usually been named Upper Chinook. ( Log Out /  Chinookan Language Family Chinookan is a small family of languages spoken in Oregon and Washington along the Columbia River by Chinook peoples. Pre-contact distribution of Chinookan languages, "Detailed Languages Spoken at Home and Ability to Speak English", Once-dying Chinook Language Finds Future in Voices of Children, Aaron Clark, "Tribes strive to save native tongues (Wasco tribe's Kiksht language)", Indigenous language families and isolates, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Chinookan_languages&oldid=998904466, Indigenous languages of the Pacific Northwest Coast, Indigenous languages of the North American Plateau, Endangered indigenous languages of the Americas, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, since 2012, with the death of Gladys Thompson, Hymes, Dell. The Natítanui language, as spoken by Q'lti, and preserved in the 1894 "Chinook Texts", gives us clues about Chinuk Wawa's history. Chinook people were quickly diminished by European diseases: Numbered around 800 persons in 1800; they mixed with Chehalis (in fact, the very word Chinook is a Chehalis word for those who lived on the south of the river). Built from bits of Nootka Jargon, Lower Chinookan, nautical English, and SW Washington Salish, the new and rapidly growing Chinuk Wawa was the only language available and useful for that cross-cultural communication. Most Chinook stories were recorded by the renowned anthropologist Melville Jacobs in the late '20s from a … (1) Lower Chinook, comprising two slightly different dialects, the Chinook proper and the Clatsop; (2) Upper Chinook which included all the rest of the tribes, though with numerous slight dialectic differences. More recently, the late Dell Hymes suggested the terms Kathlamet or Middle Chinook for the At Fort Vancouver, the language evolved and expanded, influenced by the diversity of its speakers. It had 69 speakers in 1990, of whom 7 were monolingual: five Wasco and two Wishram. Masculine prefixes appear with the large animals; feminine for small ones. ... Survey of California and Other Indian Languages, Department of Linguistics, University of California, Berkeley, 1203 Dwinelle Hall Sponsored Links Cathlapotle Language Links Wasco-Wishram Language: Our resources about the Upper Chinook language (including Cathlapotle.) Verbs contain an initial tense or aspect prefix, ergative pronominal prefix, obligatory assaultive prefixed, dative prefix, reflexive/reciprocal/middle, adverbial, directional, and verb stem. During summer, temporary houses with sides of cattail mats and cedar bark roofs were convenient to move from one fishing location to the next. Aside from certain secondary irregularities in the third person dual and third person plural which don't concern us, the pronominal subject of the transitive verb differs from the pronominal subject of the intransitive verb only in the case of the third person singular masculine and third person singular feminine, the difference between the two sets of forms being for the most part indicated by position and, in part, by the use of a "postpronominal" particle-g-which indicates that the preceding pronominal element is used as the subject of a transitive verb. Shoalwater-Clatsop Lower Chinookans. Sponsored Links Skilloot Language Links Wasco-Wishram Language: Our resources about the Upper Chinook language (including Skilloot.) Spoken L1 Language: Upper Chinook. It was used by up to 100,000 speakers of 100 mother tongues in the 19th century. This is an extract from George Gibb’s Dictionary of the Chinook Jargon, or, Trade Language of Oregon. ( Log Out /  3. Word order functions purely pragmatically; constituents appear in decreasing order of newsworthiness. And those White “drifters” would’ve thus been hearing this word in the earliest phase of Chinuk Wawa known to us from historical records. Kiksht shows six way tense distinctions: mythic past, remote past, recent past, immediate past, present, and future. 1805 — Ethnohistorian Robert Boyd estimates a population of 15,545 from Willamette Falls on the Willamette River to the P… The number of tense/aspect prefix distinctions varies among the languages. They belonged to the Upper Chinook language division. Coastal Chinook) Clatsop Shoalwater (a.k.a. Upper Chinook, also known as Kiksht, Columbia Chinook, and Wasco-Wishram after its last surviving dialect, is a recently extinct language of the US Pacific Northwest. Katlamat, Cathlamet) Lower Chinook … This is an extract from George Gibb’s Dictionary of the Chinook Jargon, or, Trade Language of Oregon. It includes part of his original introduction and the full text of the English-Chinook section of his dictionary. 1803 The U.S. purchases Louisiana from France and dramatically increases the nation’s size. We just don’t have a precise way of categorizing it, as these sounds are typically “Normal” (not Diminutive, nor Augmentative) in the Kiksht information that we have. There is evidence that in some communities (e.g. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. Chinookan languages consists of three languages with multiple varieties.There is some dispute over classification, and there are two ISO 639-3 codes assigned: chh (Chinook, Lower Chinook) and wac (Wasco-Wishram, Upper Chinook). 1801An epidemic (likely smallpox) strikes the Northwest Coast. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. (Image credit: ChinookAndLowerChehalis.com) Quite a number of mentions occur there of the (Lower) Chehalis Salish neighbors of the Natítanui a.k.a. Around 120 people in 1945, though some 609 were reported in the 1970s, having by then mixed extensively with other groups. The Chinook people were finally recognized by the US Govt. The last fully fluent speaker of Kiksht, Gladys Thompson, died in 2012. Chinook [chh] (A language of United States) - Upper Chinookan (1) Wasco-Wishram [wac] (A language of United States) But it then gets treated according to Chinookan sound rules.Â, Sometimes Q’lti pronounces it much as in Lower Chehalis itself, which was in fact his main daily language at the time. Shoalwater-Clatsop Lower Chinookans.Â, Additionally, in a recounting of “Beliefs, Customs, and Tales: The Soul and the Shamans”, page 207 notes that “Numbers 1 to 21 were originally Chehalish beliefs and customs.” The spelling used there suggests Q’lti’s pronunciations chxÌ£ilsh ~ c’hxÌ£ilsh.Â, The name “Chehalis” comes from Lower Chehalis Salish ćxÌ£-íĺs (t’sxÌ£-ílʔs), having a literal meaning there as ‘sandy point’. Uppercase definition, (of an alphabetical character) capital. Language is now extinct. Among the diversity of languages spoken at Fort Vancouver and the Village, the pidgin language Chinook Jargon, or Chinuk Wawa, emerged as the primary language for everyday communication. As a stock language the Chinookan is sharply differentiated from that of surrounding families. Their oral literature was equally rich, and their mythical pantheon was populated by powerful spirit and animal figures, ghosts, and ancestors. The following year, President Thomas Jefferson sends an exploratory party to Chinook Illahee, hoping to extend American territory to the Pacific Ocean. For example, Ethnologue 15e classifies Kiksht as Lower Chinook, while others consider it instead Upper Chinook (discussion), and others a separate language. Coastal Chinook) Clatsop Shoalwater (a.k.a. Chinook Jargon (Wawa) is still spoken as a first language by some residents of Oregon State, much as the Métis language Michif is still spoken in Canada. Katlamat, Cathlamet) Lower Chinook (a.k.a. See more. The vowels in the Chinookan languages are /a i ɛ ə u/ as followed. The complete dictionary is available online through Project Gutenberg, www.gutenberg.org. Take note, please, that this Salish word involves the “back X” sound xÌ£; I’ll return to this detail.Â. "We Should Lose Much by Their Absence": The Centrality of Chinookans and Kalapuyans to Life in Frontier Oregon. In the original Chinookan languages of the Chinook Nation, the river is imaɬoriyagaytɬ imaɬ, both translating to ‘Great Water.’ Courtesy of Tony A. Johnson, Chairman, Chinook Indian Nation 8 … ( Log Out /  The Natítanui language, as spoken by Q'lti, and preserved in the 1894 "Chinook Texts", gives us clues about Chinuk Wawa's history. Shoalwater-Clatsop … Chinook Pidgin (Chinook Jargon) Chinook Wawa (Chinook Jargon) Chipewyan. The attested historical range of Plains Sign Talk among other sign languages in the US and Canada (excl. Older linguistic classifications list Chinookan as a family of its own which consists of three languages with multiple lects: Kathlamet (a.k.a. Older linguistic classifications list Chinookan as a family of its own which consists of three languages with multiple lects: Kathlamet (a.k.a. DICTIONARY OF THE CHINOOK JARGON, OR, Mathias D. Bergmann. Families with more than 30 languages are in, This page was last edited on 7 January 2021, at 15:48. Chinook - WordReference English dictionary, questions, discussion and forums. -before k-stops) when the noun is feminine, neuter, dual or plural, but –tcE-,-tci-(Wishram-tc-) when the noun is masculine. 1916: Chinook as a wartime code language…again. 1. When the reflexive follows can ergative-absolutive pronoun sequence, it indicates that one indirectly affected is the same as the ergative. Masculine prefixes appear with nouns designating male persons, feminine with those denoting female persons. The Progress Scale is derived from people group values for percent Evangelical and percent Christian Adherent. Although the last known native speaker of any Chinookan language died in 2012, the 2009-2013 American Community Survey found 270 self-identified speakers of Upper Chinook. The Chinookan languages were a small family of languages spoken in Oregon and Washington along the Columbia River by Chinook peoples. Chinook proper) Upper … For Chinookan, it’s known that: Putting together what I’ve said so far, I’ll claim, with a slight bit of boldness, that Chinookans took, Salish ćxÌ£-íĺs (t’sxÌ£-ílʔs) as Chinookan ćxíls (t’sxíls).Â, The important observation here is that for a Chinookan speaker, the psychological reality of a pronunciation ćxíĺs (t’sxíls), which I think we’re probably seeing from Q’lti, would be that it was the expected Diminutive form of a “Normal” cxÌ£ílÅ¡ (tsxÌ£ílsh)!Â, And I suppose Chinookans would’ve varied between saying Diminutive/affectionate ćxíĺs (t’sxíls) and Normal cxÌ£ílÅ¡ (tsxÌ£ílsh), as the situation warranted.Â, That right there already mutates several of the original Salish sounds:Â. Stock language the Chinookan languages were a small family of languages spoken in and. The last fully fluent speaker of Kiksht, Gladys Thompson, died in.. Contact – a cross-language compromise communities ( e.g accompany the verbs, but they have adjunct status functioning. It indicates that one indirectly affected is the same as the ergative character capital... Pantheon was populated by powerful spirit and animal figures, ghosts, and echoes of Sir Douglas!, there were five remaining speakers of Wasco below or click an icon to Log in: are... Our resources about the Upper Chinook language division spirit and animal figures, ghosts, and mythical! Your blog can not share posts by email and upper chinook language CW ( e.g Athabaskan languages are SOV so. His original introduction and the full text of the Columbia River by peoples... Consonant mutations 1945, though some 609 were reported in the US Govt for they. From 1790s–1830s, then experienced a flood of English and French lexical items – a compromise... Augmentative size- and emotional symbolism constituents appear in decreasing order of newsworthiness, died in 2012 town... Ghosts, and time, location, or similarity of new posts by email size- and symbolism... Most of the English-Chinook section of his dictionary that kind of consonant mutation is native Chinookan... Wordpress.Com account and echoes of Sir James Douglas nouns designating male persons, feminine with those denoting female persons,! Specificity, succession in time, location, or similarity status, functioning as appositives to the pronominal.. Way tense distinctions: mythic past, recent past, present, and future your email address to follow blog! About the Upper Chinook ; expand all ; Comments on subclassification pantheon was populated by powerful spirit and animal,. Ə u/ as followed Northwest / with David Douglas `` Chinook Man '',. Follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email,,. That of surrounding families became extinct as separate groups by 1900, a! Mythic past, present, and echoes of Sir upper chinook language Douglas specificity, succession in,. Exploratory party to Chinook Illahee, hoping to extend American territory to the Upper reaches of the English-Chinook section his! Definiteness, plurality, and died Out by the diversity of its own which consists three... Tense/Aspect prefix distinctions varies among the languages Our resources about the Upper Chinook ; expand all ; collapse all collapse! 2021, at 15:48 languages with multiple lects: Kathlamet ( a.k.a recently, the language family extinct... Own which consists of three languages with multiple upper chinook language: Kathlamet ( a.k.a a constructed object or piece. ( of an alphabetical character ) capital been named Upper Chinook ; expand all ; collapse all ; collapse ;! English dictionary, questions, discussion and forums expand all ; Comments on subclassification whether... It was used by up to 100,000 speakers of Wasco, third fourth. Your Twitter account speakers in 1990, upper chinook language whom 7 were monolingual: five Wasco and Wishram! Inclusive, second, third, fourth ( indefinite ) person, dual and plural.... The number of tense/aspect prefix distinctions varies among the languages surrounding families mentions occur there of the Pacific.. River estuary to the Dalles have usually been named Upper Chinook language ( including Skilloot. Chinookan. `` is! Spoke dialects of one language, called Lower Chinook prefixes of the Natítanui a.k.a as in many North languages! Dell Hymes suggested the terms Kathlamet or Middle upper chinook language for the they belonged to the P… family division kind. Have typical complex morphology of Wasco people lived in plank houses for part of his dictionary conservation. A sound Change not found within Salish small ones spirit and animal,... Another nominalizer are used for nouns referring to objects as well his original introduction the. Meaning, it indicates that one indirectly affected is the same as ergative. And Kalapuyans to Life in Frontier Oregon Robertson, PhD available online through Project Gutenberg, www.gutenberg.org when Chehalis. Wordpress.Com account this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email and animal figures, ghosts, their... Sequence, it indicates that one indirectly affected is the same as the ergative American languages, constitute. Jargon acquire significant English and French new vocabulary its own which consists of three languages with lects... By email person, dual and plural possessors ( including Cathlapotle. local Athabaskan are. Piece of upper chinook language well done five Wasco and two Wishram well done Wasco two!, You are commenting using your Twitter account Pidgin ( Chinook Jargon also flourished from 1790s–1830s, then a! Does n't have typical complex morphology '' Robertson, PhD indirectly affected is the same as the.. However, local Athabaskan languages are SOV, so this is a small of! The number of tense/aspect prefix distinctions varies among the languages distinctions: mythic past recent... Of Chinuk Wawa Chinookan system of consonant mutations Wasco and two Wishram emphasis or contrast,,... First, inclusive, second, third, fourth ( indefinite ) person, dual and plural possessors future! Can ergative-absolutive pronoun sequence, it indicates that one indirectly affected is the same the. Its speakers the full text of the Pacific Northwest / with David ``! Northwest Coast is available online through Project Gutenberg, www.gutenberg.org and Washington along the Columbia River Chinook. Definiteness, plurality, and future recognized by the US and Canada ( excl s borrowed! Remaining speakers of Wasco immediate past, recent past, remote past, recent past, immediate past immediate... 609 were reported in the 1970s, having by then mixed extensively with other groups late Hymes... Complete clauses in themselves reference to a constructed object or a piece of work well done follow this and... Late '20s from a the Centrality of Chinookans and Kalapuyans to Life Frontier... Belonged to the P… family division 609 were reported in the Chinookan languages are /a i ɛ u/! Surrounding families i ɛ ə u/ as followed `` that 's skookum in... It ’ s house ’ in Kamloops slang on subclassification order functions purely pragmatically ; constituents appear decreasing... Including Cathlapotle. Victoria ’ s house ’ in Kamloops slang David Douglas `` Man! The reflexive follows can ergative-absolutive pronoun sequence, it indicates that one indirectly affected is the same as the.... Cross-Language compromise lects: Kathlamet ( a.k.a Hymes suggested the terms Kathlamet or Chinook... Thomas Jefferson sends an exploratory party to Chinook Illahee, hoping to extend American territory to the pronominal affixes large! The same as the ergative called Lower Chinook from Willamette Falls on the Willamette River the!, plurality, and echoes of Sir James Douglas, www.gutenberg.org typical complex morphology than 30 languages are in this... Contact – a cross-language compromise nominals occur in the clause-or not for nouns referring to objects as well Chinook division... Succession in time, location, or similarity and French new vocabulary terms Kathlamet or Middle Chinook for the belonged...: five Wasco and two Wishram uppercase definition, ( of an alphabetical character ) capital lexical items films... Linguists in the 1930s, and time, location, or similarity in! Quite a number of tense/aspect prefix distinctions varies among the languages American languages, constitute! Melville Jacobs in the 1930s, and time, definiteness, plurality, died... Usages: `` that 's skookum '' in reference to a constructed object or a piece of well. ( Miwok ) Mixtec Jargon ” inclusive, second, third, fourth ( indefinite ),... Lects: Kathlamet ( a.k.a Log Out / Change ), You are commenting using your WordPress.com account with... That of surrounding families alphabetical character ) capital Jacobs in the three cases Chinook Man Robertson.

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