The UK plans to purchase the STOVL F-35B to be operated from the Royal Navy's Future Queen Elizabeth-classaircraft carrier.  The Sea Harriers performed the primary air defence role with a secondary role of ground attack.  It has two landing gear on the fuselage and two outrigger landing gear on the wings.  They were also deployed to Sierra Leone on board HMS Illustrious in 2000, which was itself part of a Royal Navy convoy to supply and reinforce British intervention forces in the region. It first entered service with the Royal Navy in April 1980 as the Sea Harrier FRS1 and became informally known as the "Shar". The nozzles point rearward with the lever in the forward position for horizontal flight. In addition to normal flight controls, the Harrier has a lever for controlling the direction of the four vectorable nozzles. These were very carefully and politically designated as cruisers to deliberately avoid the term "aircraft carrier",  in order to increase the chances of funding from a hostile political climate against expensive capital ships,  they were considerably smaller than the previously sought CVA-01. , The Sea Harrier is a subsonic aircraft designed for strike, reconnaissance and fighter roles. , A Sea Harrier FA2 on display at the National Maritime Museum in May 2006, The Sea Harrier was withdrawn from service in 2006 and the last remaining aircraft from 801 Naval Air Squadron were decommissioned on 29 March 2006. Find professional British Aerospace Sea Harrier videos and stock footage available for license in film, television, advertising and corporate uses. Photo size: 10.1" x 8" inches . BACKGROUND The Harrier is the only truly operational V/STOL, (Vertical/Short Take Off and Landing,) jet aircraft in the world. Donald, David, ed. Its usage in the Falklands War was its most high profile and important success, when it was the only fixed-wing fighter available to protect the British Task Force. The aircraft's replacement, the F-35 Lightning II,  was originally due in 2012, the MoD arguing that significant expenditure would be required to upgrade the fleet for only six years of service.  It has two landing gear on the fuselage and two outrigger landing gear on the wings. The British Aerospace Sea Harrier is a naval short take-off and vertical landing/vertical take-off and landing jet fighter, reconnaissance and attack aircraft; the second member of the Harrier Jump Jet family developed.  During this time requirements within the Royal Navy began to form for a vertical and/or short take-off and landing (V/STOL) carrier-based interceptor to replace the de Havilland Sea Vixen. The first flight of the prototype took place in September 1988 and a contract was signed for 29 upgraded aircraft in December that year. The glossy metallic blue paint scheme seen here was altered to a duller one en route. This was a mistake!  In 1979, India placed its first order for 6 Sea Harriers, the first three of which arrived at Dabolim Airport on 16 December 1983.  It features a single Rolls-Royce Pegasus turbofan engine with two intakes and four vectorable nozzles. The Sea Harrier is equipped with four wing and three fuselage pylons for carrying weapons and external fuel tanks.Use of the ski jump allowed the aircraft to take off from a short flight deck with a heavier loadout than otherwise possible, al… But Art Nalls and his team at Nalls Aviation proved that it could be done - and in dramatic fashion. Front and back of the image:  By October 2006, reports emerged that the deal had not materialised due to the cost of airframe refurbishment. An extensive re-fit during 2002 prevented her from involvement in the 2003 Iraq War, but she was repaired in time to assist British citizens trapped by the 2006 Lebanon War. Almost immediately upon their construction, a ski-jump was added to the end of the 170-metre deck, enabling the carriers to effectively operate a small number of V/STOL jets.  The British pilots noticed Argentinian pilots occasionally releasing weapons outside of their operating parameters. HTMS Chakri Naruebet (CVH-911) is the flagship of the Royal Thai Navy (RTN), and Thailand's first and only aircraft carrier, although the RTN refers to her as an "Offshore Patrol Helicopter Carrier". The Sea Harrier is a subsonic aircraft designed to fill strike, reconnaissance and fighter roles. 1 - 2 INS Viraat was a Centaur-class aircraft carrier of the Indian Navy. This later reduced their capability to fight an effective campaign against the Sea Harrier due to reduced range and lack of external fuel tanks..  India plans to introduce larger aircraft carriers that can operate Russian MiG-29K carrier fighters from their flight decks to replace the Sea Harrier. Returning to the United Kingdom, she was not formally commissioned into the fleet until 20 March 1983. The FA2 first flew in 1988 and entered service in 1993. With cancellation of the aircraft carriers renewal program in the 1960s, the three ships became the replacements for Ark Royal and Eagle fleet carriers and the Centaur-class light fleet carriers, and the Royal Navy's sole class of aircraft carrier. "MAC-DAC/BAe AV-8 Harrier Vectored Thrust VTOL".  The result was that the Sea Harriers could not establish complete air superiority and prevent Argentine attacks during day or night, nor could they completely stop the daily C-130 Hercules transports' night flights to the islands.  Use of the ski jump allowed the aircraft to take off from a short flight deck with a heavier payload than would otherwise be possible, although it can also take off like a conventional loaded fighter without thrust vectoring from a normal airport runway. A. Horrex, M. Ray, M. Boulanger, R. Dunn, T. McGhee & T. Wood.   A second, updated version for the Royal Navy was made in 1993 as the Sea Harrier FA2, improving its air-to-air abilities and weapons compatibilities, along with a more powerful engine; this version continued manufacture until 1998. , The Royal Navy's Fleet Air Arm would continue to share the other component of Joint Force Harrier. The BAe Sea Harrier is a single-engine single-seat carrier-based vertical/short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) fighter bomber aircraft produced by the British manufacturer BAe, British Aerospace.The Sea Harrier was operated by the Royal Navy Fleet Air Arm and is in service with the Indian Navy. , In 1977, the Indian government approved of plans to acquire the Sea Harrier for the Indian Navy; prior to this, rumours reportedly were circulating of a potential Indian purchase of the Soviet V/STOL-capable Yak-36. 1979 BRITISH AEROSPACE SEA HARRIER FA2 For Sale in Rockford, Illinois at Controller.com.  , In 1998, the UK Defence Evaluation and Research Agency test-fitted an FA2 with AVPRO UK Ltd's Exint pods, small underwing compartments intended to be used for deployment of special forces. Harrier & Sea Harrier.  Out of the total Argentine air losses, 28% were shot down by Harriers.  The following is an incomplete list of some of the surviving aircraft. The British Aerospace Sea Harrier is a naval VTOL/STOVL jet fighter, reconnaissance and attack aircraft, a development of the Hawker Siddeley Harrier. Almost immediately upon their construction, a ski-jump was added to the end of the 170-metre deck, enabling the carriers to effectively operate a small number of V/STOL jets. In 1977, the Indian government approved of plans to acquire the Sea Harrier for the Indian Navy; prior to this, rumours reportedly were circulating of a potential Indian purchase of the Soviet V/STOL-capable Yak-36.  The Blue Vixen formed the basis for development of the Eurofighter Typhoon's CAPTOR radar. The Sea Harriers shot down 20 enemy aircraft during the conflict; 2 Sea Harriers were lost to enemy ground fire. Country of origin. The first V/STOL tests on a ship began with a Hawker Siddeley P.1127 landing on HMS Ark Royal in 1963.  A combined six Sea Harriers were lost to either enemy fire, accidents or mechanical failure during the war. The British Aerospace Sea Harrier is a naval short take-off and vertical landing/vertical take-off and landing jet fighter, reconnaissance and attack aircraft; the second member of the Harrier Jump Jet family developed. A number of aircraft were retained by the School of Flight Deck Operations at RNAS Culdrose.  Tactics such as the 'Viff' (Vectored in Forward Flight) using the nozzles normally used for vertical flight for braking and other directions proved decisive in dogfights, although at least one reputable source has reported Viffing was not used by RN pilots in the Falklands. In addition to the 3 Aircraft, this Package Includes: Spares, Support Equipment, Engines, Manuals, Rotables, and a …  Use of the ski jump allowed the aircraft to take off from a short flight deck with a heavier loadout than otherwise possible, although it can also take off like a conventional loaded fighter without thrust vectoring from a normal airport runway. By 1960, the last battleship, HMS Vanguard, was retired from the Navy, having been in service for less than fifteen years. The aircraft was the latest development of the Harrier Jump Jet family, and was derived from the McDonnell Douglas AV-8B Harrier II. , Following their key role in the 1982 Falklands War, several lessons were learned from the aircraft's performance, which led to approval for an upgrade of the fleet to FRS.2 (later known as FA2) standard to be given in 1984. Is it right for today's combat environment? Several surviving Sea Harriers are held by museums and private owners, and some others are at the Royal Navy School of Flight Deck Operations at RNAS Culdrose and other military bases for training.  Other ordnance has included 68 mm rockets, runway-denial bombs, cluster bombs, and podded 30 mm cannons. To this end, she was brought forward by three months for completion at Swan Hunter Shipyard, then commissioned on 20 June 1982 at sea en route to Portsmouth Dockyard to take on board extra stores and crew. They were also used to launch ground attacks in the same manner as the Harriers operated by the Royal Air Force.   , British aircraft received fighter control from warships in San Carlos Water, although its effectiveness was limited by their being stationed close to the islands, which severely limited the effectiveness of their radar. Early design studies, P.1127, GR.1, the two-seaters, GR.3, AV-8A and the Matador are included in the text, together with many new photographs and three-view illustrations. Tellis, Ashley J.. "The Naval Balance in the Indian Subcontinent: Demanding Missions for the Indian Navy". NATO aircraft are still particularly vulnerable to attack from certain forms of guided missiles", http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-85169622.html, "Downed British Jet's Pilot Rescued in Bosnia", http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?p_product=PG&p_theme=pg&p_action=search&p_maxdocs=200&p_topdoc=1&p_text_direct-0=0EADEFB3DD0502E7&p_field_direct-0=document_id&p_perpage=10&p_sort=YMD_date:D&s_trackval=GooglePM, "Crisis in Yugoslavia; U.S. , The first three Sea Harriers were a development batch and were used for clearance trials.  A separate deal for a further ten Sea Harriers were purchased in November 1985; eventually a total of 30 Harriers were procured, 25 for operational use and the remainder as dual-seat trainer aircraft. The Fleet Air Arm operates the F-35 Lightning II in a Maritime Strike Role, the AW159 Wildcat and AW101 Merlin in both Commando and Anti-Submarine roles, and the BAE Hawk in an aggressor role. Markings Hawker Siddeley Harrier BAe Sea Harrier FRS.1 Royal Navy Fleet Air Arm (1937-now) 700A Flight British aircraft received fighter control from warships in San Carlos Water, although its effectiveness was limited by their being stationed close to the islands, which severely limited the effectiveness of their radar.  The decision to retire the Sea Harrier early has been criticised by some officers within the military. 1186–1213. The British Aerospace (BAe) Sea Harrier was informally known as the ‘Shar’ .  The pilot, Lieutenant Nick Richardson, ejected and landed in territory controlled by friendly Bosnian Muslims.  The Sea Harrier was declared operational in 1981 on board the first Invincible class ship HMS Invincible, and further aircraft joined the ageing HMS Hermes aircraft carrier later that year. Asian Survey.   Ten more Sea Harriers were purchased in November 1985;  eventually a total of 30 Harriers were procured, 25 for operational use and the remainder as dual-seat trainer aircraft. Locations of the four nozzles on the aircraft. It has two landing gear on the fuselage and two outrigger landing gear on the wings. 56 aircraft were built for the Royal Navy. The RAF Harrier GR3 provided the main ground attack force, a total of 28 Sea Harriers and 14 Harrier GR3s were deployed in the theatre. Even prior to the Harrier GR5 entering service, it was clear that alterations were required for the aircraft to be more capable in the interdictor role. Despite the pitching of a ship posing a natural problem, the system was designed to be aware of such data, and successfully performed a landing at sea in May 2005.   The plans for retirement were announced in 2002 by the Ministry of Defence. She took over as flagship of the British fleet when Hermes was sold to India.  The following is list of those not used by the military for training.  An upgraded model of the Pegasus engine, the Pegasus Mk 106, was used in the Sea Harrier FA2; in response to the threat of radar-based anti aircraft weapons electronic countermeasures were added. In addition to normal flight controls, the Harrier has a lever for controlling the direction of the four vectorable nozzles. It first entered service with the Royal Navyin April 1980 as the Sea Harrier FRS1and became informally known as the "Shar". There are 130photos of Version British Aerospace Sea Harrier FRS1for Aircraft Generic Type British Aerospace Harrierin the Airliners.net database. HMS Hermes was a conventional British aircraft carrier and the last of the Centaur class. , The Indian aircraft carrier INS Vikrant in the early 1980s, carrying Sea Harriers, Sea Hawks, Allouette and Sea King helicopters, and Alize ASW aircraft, In 2006, the Indian Navy expressed interest in acquiring up to eight of the Royal Navy's recently retired Sea Harrier FA2s in order to maintain their operational Sea Harrier fleet, Neither the Sea Harrier FA2's Blue Vixen radar, the radar warning receiver or AMRAAM capability was proposed to be included; certain US software would be also be uninstalled prior to shipment. , The first three Sea Harriers were a development batch and were used for clearance trials.  In 1990 the Navy ordered 18 new-build FA2s, at a unit cost of around £12 million, four further upgraded aircraft were ordered in 1994. Getty Images offers exclusive rights-ready and premium royalty-free analog, HD, and 4K video of the highest quality. In December 2007, it was damaged in a hard landing, while undergoing testing at, 2× auxiliary drop tanks for ferry flight or extended range/loitering time.  In addition, fears partly aroused by the bombing of Port Stanley airport by a British Vulcan bomber added to the Argentinians' decision to operate them from afar. British Aerospace long tried to interest the British government in an improved Harrier with better aerodynamics and greater payload. Articles with dead external links from November 2014, Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia, vertical and/or short take-off and landing, http://www.harrier.org.uk/history/history_SHARdownunder.htm, "London almost sold arms to BA before war: Astonishing weapons sales plan for Argentina", http://prensa.cancilleria.gov.ar/noticia.php?id=11591601, http://www.royalnavy.mod.uk/The-Fleet/Air-Stations/RNAS-Culdrose/School-of-Flight-Deck-Operations, http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/latimes/access/444286992.html?dids=444286992:444286992&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:AI&type=historic&date=Aug+20%2C+1959&author=&pub=Los+Angeles+Times&desc=No+V+for+the+Mighty+Vanguard&pqatl=google, "Thirty years on: reflections on CVA-01 versus TSR2", http://www.jeffreybradford.com/JB01%202003.pdf, http://www.centennialofflight.gov/essay/Aerospace/Hawker/Aero51a.htm, http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=1683027&show=pdf, "Sea Harrier changes face of air warfare", http://news.google.co.uk/newspapers?id=T3MhAAAAIBAJ&sjid=OIgFAAAAIBAJ&pg=3796,8465827&dq=sea+harrier&hl=en, http://defense-archive.teldan.com/Article/First-Flight-for-Sea-Harrier-FRS.aspx?sID=277683, "RN Sea Harrier FRS.2 passes sea trials on HMS Ark Royal", "Sea Harrier cuts leave the fleet exposed The decision to retire the decisive weapon of the Falklands conflict means the Navy will have to rely on America for air support", http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/1389438/Sea-Harrier-cuts-leave-the-fleet-exposed-The-decision-to-retire-the-decisive-weapon-of-the-Falklands-conflict-means-the-Navy-will-have-to-rely-on-America-for-air-support.-David-Graves-reports.html, http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=BX7c6gVuyVQC&pg=PA780&dq=Sea+Harrier&hl=en&ei=lNkfTJ2BDs6TOMXCya0M&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDMQ6AEwAjgK#v=onepage&q=Sea%20Harrier&f=false, http://www.flightglobal.com/articles/2006/05/09/206520/harrier-high.html, "Captor Radar (International), Airborne radar systems", http://www.janes.com/articles/Janes-Avionics/Captor-Radar-International.html, http://news.google.co.uk/newspapers?id=Uqw1AAAAIBAJ&sjid=D6YLAAAAIBAJ&pg=3523,7065728&dq=radar+blue+vixen&hl=en, http://www.airsceneuk.org.uk/oldstuff/2006/newarkshar/shar.htm, "Oldies & Oddities: The Alraigo Incident", http://www.airspacemag.com/military-aviation/Oldies__Oddities_.html, http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg18625016.100-sea-harrier-jets-land-on-autopilot.html, "Conflict in the South Atlantic: the impact of air power", http://www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil/airchronicles/aureview/1984/mar-apr/duffner.html, http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/aircraft/av-8-ops.htm, "The Air Force says it wants a STOVL F-35. 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First entered service in 1973 and a contract was signed for 29 upgraded aircraft in December that year and. Against the marine environment Super Hornet during Malabar 2007 british aerospace sea harrier and the second Sea Harrier built XZ... Enemy ground fire the deal had not materialised due to limited aircraft availability fly alongside U.S. Navy 's Future Elizabeth-classaircraft.
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